Tag Archive for diaspora

Haiti, Land of Great Food

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“Ayiti” – land of the mountains, as the Taíno Indians called it; the “Black Pearl of the Caribbean” – I am deeply sorry that we have not been better neighbors to help you in your time of need even though you’ve given us so much; that you are not given the credit you are due.

Haiti, island where Cacica Anacaona ruled, the mecca of Caribbean music and arts, is the first Independent Black Republic in the world. It has also given us, the Latina/o Diaspora, more of our culture than we realize.

haiti

As some of you may or may not know, I recently traveled to the southern Caribbean island of Trinidad to search out a well-known genre named Kalindá. I wanted to find the connections between Kalindá and a lost stick-fighting tradition in Puerto Rico named cocobalé. While in Trinidad, I noticed that as lavways or songs were sung that many were in Creole. When I asked my teachers about that, they simply said, “Haiti”. This is so in Puerto Rico, as well where Creole lyrics abound in bomba, its oldest surviving genre. And so it is in Cuba with the genre named tumba francesa. Haiti has left its impression on us. At a minimum you will see many similarities. You will see this within their food which is strongly influenced by African, Spanish, French, and North American cuisine.

To make things a bit easier I wanted to take the time to translate some dishes. Because of the Creole language I feel that Latina/os are a bit intimidated to approach Haitian food:

 

Creole

English

Spanish

Bannann Peze

Fried Plantain

Tostones

Dire ak Pwa

Rice and Beans

Arroz con Habichuelas

Griyo

Fried Pork

Carne Frita

Poule en Sauce

Stewed Chicken

Pollo Guisado

Bannann Duece

Sweet Plantain

Plátano Maduro

Pate

Meat Pie

Pastelillos

Pate mori

Codfish Fritters

Bacalaítos

Bouyon

Hearty Stew

Sancocho

Akra

Taro root Fritters

Fritura de Malanga

Lambi Creole

Conch in Creole Sauce

Carrucho en Salsa Criolla

Corosol

Soursop drink

Jugo de Guanábana

Kola Champagne

Kola Champagne

Kola Champagne

Crema

Coconut Punch with Rum

Coquito

You can find these dishes in Chicago at Kizin Creole (2311 Howard St, Telephone number: 773-961-7275). Keep in mind all food is made to order, which means although your wait is longer, the food is well worth it.

Formerly known as Chez Violette,  Kizin Creole was the on the brink of closing its doors when current owner, Daniel Desir, decided that he would take on the challenge of taking over the business, the only Haitian restaurant in the city. He explained that Chicago, the land of Haitian-born Jean Baptiste Point du Sable needed a Haitian restaurant. Today, Kizin Creole not only serves as a great restaurant, but also is a cultural center for its people.

This month’s recipe I wanted to share some, which historians will say has made its way from Haiti to Cuba and Puerto Rico and other countries in the Caribbean. Here is my recipe for “Fricasé en Pollo” which is known to be a French style of cooking:

Fricasé en Pollo (Feeds 6-8)

pollo

Ingredients:

1 whole chicken

1 tbs of kosher salt

1/2 tbs garlic powder

1/2 tbs cumin

1/2 tbs black pepper

1/2 tbs onion powder

1/2 tbs cayenne powder (for a spicier option)

3 tbs of vinegar

3 tbs achiote oil

½ cup of sofrito

1 small diced onion

5 minced garlic cloves

1 green pepper diced (membrane removed)

4  tbs of chopped recao/culantro

3 cups of cooking wine of your choice.

1 cup tomato sauce

2 peeled and cubed potatoes

2 carrots peeled and chopped

4 tbs of stuffed green olives

4 tbs capers

3 ½ cups of water

2 bay leaves

Salt as needed

Directions:

1) Cut chicken into parts on clean surface. Remove wings, thighs and drumstick. Split breast in two. Keep skin in tact. Wash chicken and set in large bowl.

2) Marinate chicken with first 6 dry ingredients and vinegar. Rub in well, cover, and let marinate in refrigerator at least 1 hour. If time allows, overnight is best.

3) In large saucepan, heat up achiote oil until hot. Seal in the flavors and brown chicken for about 6 minutes on all sides ‘til browned.

4) Add Sofrito, onions, garlic, green pepper, recao to pan of browned chicken. Let ingredients cook about 5 minutes.

5) Deglaze pan with cooking wine about 4-5 minutes

6) Add tomato sauce, carrots, potatoes, olives, capers, bay leafs.

7) Add water and bring to boil

8) Add salt or cayenne powder again if you enjoy spicy. This is a great time to taste food and make adjustments of taste as needed.

9) Reduce heat, cover and let simmer for about 1 hour. Chicken should be tender and falling off bone.

10) Stir on occasion and remove bay leaves before serving. Great with with rice.

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Albizu Campos, The Athletic Youth From Ponce

For many, Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos is a black and white figure – a terrorist to some, a patriot to others. But like any human being, he lived a dynamic life full of experiences, some of which are not written about in the mainstream record. While there are many aspects of his childhood, in particular, that could be further researched and written about for a broad audience, i’d like to highlight one that caught my attention: his athletic nature as a youth in Ponce.

The first stories i came across were in an oral history interview with Ruth Reynolds. An American pacifist, Reynolds became very close with Albizu Campos while he was hospitalized in New York from 1943-45, at times visiting him on a daily basis. While there, she questioned him not only on his nationalist philosophy, but also on certain details of his personal life and childhood.

In one account, Reynolds joked that Albizu Campos innovated jogging in Ponce after a teacher told him that running, because it helps get the blood circulating, is good for the health. Following this wisdom, he began regularly running up and down the long road leading to school. In another story, when Albizu Campos was 12 or 13, his father arranged for a young man to keep the mischievous youth company. This young man taught him to swim better, dive, and many other things, the only activity his father prohibited being shark hunting. Reynolds also recalled Albizu Campos claiming to be skilled with a slingshot – he killed a few birds, and then refused to do so anymore on principle.

In another source (Huracán del Caribe, 1993, Page 22), Albizu Campos was again stated to be a young aficionado of track and field. According to an interview with a childhood neighbor of his, he also enjoyed finding large, rounded boulders in the local Río Bucaná and exercising with them, lifting them over his head. This particular activity, stone lifting, happens to be a traditional sport among the people of Spain’s Basque country, whom Albizu Campos is in part descended from through his father. Whether the young Albizu Campos was aware of this fact or not may not be known, but it is a striking coincidence.

Such activities would have put the young boy’s physical health in good standing. Several years later, while on university scholarships in New England, Albizu Campos would benefit from this athletic background while completing the first ROTC program offered to Harvard students in 1917. Deciding to volunteer with the U.S. Army during the First World War on the condition they send him with a Puerto Rican troop, he later became a military instructor. Between July 1918 and March 1919, he organized a ‘home guard’ of more than sixty volunteers for the Army that conducted exercise drills on the beaches of Ponce.

As President of the Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico, physical fitness would continue to be emphasized as part of the organization of the island’s liberation movement. The explicit reason Albizu Campos gave for establishing the Corp of Cadets, for example, was “to increase discipline, improve the physical condition of all Party members, and increase their devotion to the homeland.” Nationalist Cadets, which were often young people, would hold regular drills in the various locations where there was an organized Nationalist presence, mostly on beaches. Part of Albizu Campos’ philosophy was that every Puerto Rican should have “physical, moral, intellectual, and spiritual strength,” so that “a strong, educated, wise, and powerful” homeland could be constructed.

First Lieutenant Pedro Albizu Campos

The intent of this short essay was to provide a different perspective on Pedro Albizu Campos by focusing on one of the many lesser-known aspects of his life, his athletic nature as a youth. As we also saw, this interest in physical activity would go on to be of benefit to him as a university student, and of real importance as Puerto Rico’s foremost nationalist leader. No doubt there are many other experiences from his little discussed childhood and university experience that had an impact on his character and leadership development – i encourage people to research and write about such as i have done here.

References:
Huracán del Caribe. Libros Homines.
Pedro Albizu Campos. Escritos. Publicaciones Puertorriqueñas.
Ruth Reynolds. Oral History. Center for Puerto Rican Studies.
Marisa Rosado. Pedro Albizu Campos: Las Llamas de la Aurora. Ediciones Puerto.

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Discovering My Boricua Roots On Ancestry.com (With Tips For Researchers)

Ancestry.com now offers access to the largest online collection of Puerto Rican birth, marriage, and death records. With 5,376,623 new images, the collection of Civil Registrations in Puerto Rico from 1885-2001 - now available on the family history website - is sure to keep Boricua family historians busy late into the night, day on end.

Listed by the website as a new acquisition of June 6, 2014, the online resource is especially valuable to Boricuas of the Diaspora unable to make the trip to the island’s Department of Health, which was previously required. Now, instead of a plane trip and lodging, a few search phrases and mouse clicks are all that is needed to begin the journey of self-discovery.

My own father Stanley Muñiz, who died in 2007, would have deeply appreciated the resource. Having done some inquiry into his family in the years before his passing, he was able to trace his roots as far back as his great-grandparents. Of his eight great grandparents, he recorded the names for six, and the date and place of death – Caguas – for only two of these. He died with the date and place of death for six, and the date and place of birth for all eight, an unknown. In terms of my father’s four grandparents, while he knew all their names, he recorded the date and place of death for only three, all of whom died in Caguas, and the birth year for one – again, places and dates of birth remained largely unknown. Thus, according to my father’s records, my paternal family history began in Caguas, officially dating back at least to the 1932 birth of my own grandmother.

From l-r, my grandmother Cruzita, aunt Jenny, and grandfather Ernesto (1969)

From l-r, my grandmother Cruzita, aunt Jenny, and grandfather Ernesto (1969)

Always wanting to continue this research, when i heard about Ancestry.com’s new online resource, i knew it was time to start filling in the gaps. Fortunately, i already had an account with the website. My father asked me to create one when he was beginning the family tree i now find myself adding to. With this head start, i reactivated my account and began my research.

What followed was an exciting series of discoveries. Within a few hours, i found the missing date and place of death for two, and the missing date and place of birth for three of my father’s six known great grandparents. In addition, i found the two missing names and birthplaces of my 2nd great grandparents. To my absolute surprise, both were listed as naturals of Orocovis, a mountain town several miles west of the Caguas where most of their children died. This discovery was thanks to a 1943 death certificate i found of their child, my great grandparent, Francisco Ortiz Serrano, an illiterate tobacco farmer born in 1899, also in Orocovis. Francisco’s wife, Juana Muñiz Diaz, brought my family history to yet another town besides Caguas, having been born in 1894 Ciales.

Tip #1: Use death certificates of family members to find names and birthplaces of their parents, as well as the deceased persons’ most recent/common occupation.

By the end of the day, my paternal grandfather Ernesto’s line of ancestors, through his mother Juana Muñiz Diaz, was one of two that i could trace back the furthest. Juana’s parents, both listed as mulatos, were born in Ciales, with her father, Fabriciano Muñiz y Molina, listed as illiterate in 1910 and literate in 1920, being born there as late as 1873. Fabriciano’s parents, Concepción Muñiz and Agustina Molina, brought my family’s history to yet more towns, the former being born around 1810 in Utuado, the latter being born in Arecibo in an unknown year. Concepción died in 1885 Ciales, the only other information i was able to find on him being his mother’s name, Petrona, my 4th great grandparent, of unknown origins.

Juan Figueroa, not knowing how to write, left his mark between his name, which was then stamped (1920)

Juan Figueroa, not knowing how to write, left his mark between his name, which was then stamped (1920)

My paternal grandmother Cruzita’s line of ancestors, through her father Cruz Figueroa, can also be traced back to a 4th great grandparent. This ancestor, Concepción Figueroa, a female of unknown origins, gave birth to farmers whose grandchildren would continue farming the land of Caguas after them. One of Concepción’s children, Juan Figueroa, my 3rd great grandparent born in 1834, had ‘color’ listed as his race on his 1919 death certificate. His son, Juan Figueroa Colón, born in 1878, was listed as a sugar cane farmer in the 1930 Census, where his wife Laureana Vélez Vega was also listed as a farmer of ‘frutos menores’. Both were listed as mulato/a on one document, and mestizo/a on another. Their son Cruz Figueroa, previously mentioned, married Dominga Martinez Castro, a house worker born in 1899 Trujillo Alto, where her mother Maria was also born. Based on Census records, Cruz appears to have been the first in his family to learn to read and write.

Tip #2: Use the 1910, 1920, 1930, and 1940 U.S. Federal Census, as well as the special Census taken in 1935-36 Puerto Rico, to find the names of household/ family members, as well as their race, literacy, occupation and place of work.

Fabriciano Muñiz y Molina, a previously mentioned 2nd great grandparent of mine from Ciales, was the only other ancestor beyond my grandparents that appears to have been literate. Listed as a mulato, he is also the family member with the most consistent change of occupation over the years. Listed as a farmer in 1910, he appears to have become a jornalero, or wage earner, on a coffee farm by 1920. Perhaps this change was due to losing the land he once farmed on, or being unable to earn a decent living off it and being forced into wage labor. In any case, by 1935, when he would have been in his late 60s or 70s, he was listed as a carpenter in Caguas. This change again could have been brought about by the inability of Puerto Ricans to live off and keep their lands in the face of U.S. colonial-capitalism, in this case the land of his employer, or it could simply be the decision of an aging Fabriciano, by then a widow living in the home of his son-in-law and daughter.

Tip #3: Use Census records from different years to track the change in occupation for family members.

The main reason i’ve shared my own findings in such detail is to demonstrate the rich documentary history available online through Ancestry.com and encourage others to take up the effort of building their family tree. The Civil Registration in Puerto Rico collection now available online has a wealth of records and can help many researchers go back into the early 1800s. Hopefully the few tips i have provided aid in the process. One should also consult Ancestry.com’s own research guides, particularly the one on using vital records. It might take many hours and days, and you may not find everything you seek, but what you can learn about yourself in relation to your ancestors is profound. My experience researching only my paternal line proved no less.

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